Students may study for a PhD degree in architecture, landscape architecture, or urban planning. These three degrees are administered by a Standing Committee of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences in cooperation with the Faculty of Design. The program is intended for persons who wish to enter teaching and advanced research careers in the history and theory of architecture, architectural technology, landscape architecture, and urban form from antiquity to the present; or the analysis and development of buildings, cities, landscapes, and regions with an emphasis on social, economic, technological, ecological, and infrastructural systems. (The PhD program does not prepare students for licensing as design practitioners in any of these fields. For information on professional programs, contact the Graduate School of Design, Admissions Office, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, (617) 495-5453.)

Requirements for Admission

Applicants must have completed a four-year Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree.  A professional degree in architecture, landscape architecture, or urban planning is recommended but not required. Students from other countries must provide proof of an excellent command of spoken and written English. To be eligible for admission, applicants must also show evidence of distinguished academic work in the field or closely related fields, or distinguished work in the intended area of concentration. Applications from minorities are particularly welcome.

All applicants are required to indicate a proposed major subject of study at the time of initial application. These proposed areas of study should be congruent with the interests and expertise of at least one member of the PhD Standing Committee listed below.

The results of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), and other supporting documents specified in the Prospective Students page are also required parts of the application.

Academic Residence

Two years of full-time study while registered in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences are required.

Program of Study

Course information may be found in the Courses of Instruction offered by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences as well as in the course catalogues published by Harvard’s other professional schools, including the official catalog of the Graduate School of Design. These publications are available online.

Students are expected to prepare in each of the following areas:

(1) General Knowledge of the Field: The PhD is an academic degree, but holders of the PhD in the design fields may be interacting with scholars and professionals in other fields. The PhD program prepares its graduates for teaching in a range of institutions of higher education (including liberal art colleges, research universities, and professional schools). Therefore, in addition to academic requirements, it is expected that every PhD student possess general knowledge of the basic skills of architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design.
(2) Major Subject: The interfaculty and interdisciplinary structure of the program requires that students cross intellectual boundaries. All students must master a major area of their respective field, including the historical development and current state of research on the subject. In addition, every student must demonstrate competence in the methods of inquiry used for research in his or her major subject.
(3) Methods: All students must achieve a thorough grounding in the theory and methods of an additional humanistic or social scientific discipline related to their major subject, such as the history of art, history, economics, literature, philosophy, political science, sociology, technology, or the history of science equivalent to at least one year of full-time graduate study.
(4) Languages: Candidates for the PhD degree must normally have a reading knowledge of at least one language other than English in which there is broad and important literature related to their field or major subject. Every student must have a level of quantitative skills appropriate for research in the major subject.

Master of Arts (AM)

The department does not admit candidates for a terminal AM degree. PhD candidates, after having completed eight half-courses with satisfactory grades, may apply for a master’s degree. The degree may also be offered to students unable to complete the PhD.


The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences requires that all students maintain an average of B or better in each year of graduate study. All incomplete grades must be removed before the end of the next regular term.

Faculty Advisor and Student’s Graduate Committee

The chair of the PhD committee will assign a faculty member as the student’s advisor at the time of registration in the program. This advisor will assist in planning the student’s academic program. In addition, not fewer than two faculty members, appointed by the chair in consultation with the student, will be made available for advising regarding the general examination, prospectus, and the dissertation.

General Examination, Prospectus Defense and Dissertation

Students are expected to take the general examination in the fifth term of residence, and no later than one year after completion of the required coursework. The examination, which is given only during the fall and spring terms of the academic year, tests the student’s mastery of the general field of scholarship, specific interpretive problems within that field, and their ability to research and write a dissertation.

At least two months prior to the date of the examination, the student will meet regularly with the examination committee and will formulate a proposal describing the general and specific fields to be covered in the examination as well as possible examination questions.

The examination comprises a major and minor field. The general field is typically a broad area of history and theory of architecture, landscape architecture, or urban planning (for example, “modern architecture from 1750 to the present”). The specific field is a narrower area of study chosen by the student and subject to faculty review; in principle it should comprise a coherent and clearly defined area of scholarly inquiry that may be interdisciplinary in nature.

The examination will normally consist of two or three written essays, one in the general field (eight hours) and one or two in the specific field. Within one week of the written examination, the student and the examination committee will meet to evaluate the written essays and conduct an oral examination.

At the end of the sixth semester and after the general examination has been completed, the student will write and present their dissertation prospectus to their chosen dissertation committee. The committee will conduct an oral examination of the dissertation proposal. The purpose is to provide a formal occasion to discuss and gain approval of the dissertation topic.

Students whose performance on any part of the examination and prospectus defense is not satisfactory will be given one opportunity to repeat all or part of it.


The dissertation will be directed by a committee consisting of one primary advisor and at least two secondary advisors or readers.

Two readers must be from the Faculty of Arts and Sciences or the Standing Committee; one reader will normally have expertise in the minor field and one or more readers must be from the Graduate School of Design faculty. 

Students are normally expected to complete the program (including defense and approval of the dissertation) within seven years of admission. Students who require more than five years to complete the dissertation after passing the General Examination must petition the Standing Committee in order to extend their time.

The completed manuscript of the dissertation must be submitted to the director and readers no less than six weeks before the formal defense. The degree recommendation of the dissertation committee is due at the Registrar’s Office per its assigned completion deadlines. The final copy of the dissertation must conform to the requirements described in The Form of the PhD Dissertation.

Financial Support

Financial support is administered under the direction of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Students receive a standard package of financial support for four years as well as a dissertation completion grant (if needed). The first two years of the package support coursework. In addition there is a summer stipend in the first two years.  Teaching Fellow appointments are guaranteed in the third and fourth years. Once officially “All but dissertation” (ABD), students are highly encouraged to apply for outside fellowships and grants, This will increase their ability to conduct archival and/or field research as well as give external legitimacy to their doctoral project.  

Application Procedures

Application forms for admission may be obtained from the Admissions Office, Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Campus Center 350, 1350 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, or at the website. On the first page of the application, applicants should indicate “architecture, landscape architecture and urban planning” as the “program,” and only one of these three fields as the “subject.”

Further information on the PhD program in architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning may be obtained from

Please note that completed application materials are due January 2 for the following September. The program does not guarantee consideration of application materials received after this deadline. All applicants should arrange to take the GRE and TOEFL (if necessary) no later than October of the year before they intend to begin studies.

Doctor of Design Program

The Graduate School of Design offers a separate three-year program leading to the Doctor of Design degree (DDes), which is oriented toward applied research in the areas of architecture, technology, landscape architecture, and urban design. Applicants must normally hold master’s degree in one of the relevant design disciplines and a professional degree is highly recommended. Please consult the website at  

Standing Committee of the PhD Program in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Planning

Erika Naginski, Professor of Architectural History, Graduate School of Design, Chair of the PhD Program. Naginski is an architectural historian whose research interests include Baroque and Enlightenment architecture, early modern aesthetic philosophy, theories of public space, and the critical traditions of architectural history. She has been a fellow at the Harvard Society of Fellows, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, and Deutsches Forum für Kunstgeschichte. She was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for her current book project on the intersections o architecture,    archaeology, and conceptions of history in the late 17th and 18th centuries. Her published works include: The Return of Nature: Sustaining Architecture in the Face of Sustainability (2014) co-edited with the architect Preston Scott Cohen; the prize-winning book Sculpture and Enlightenment (2009), a study of public art and architecture in an age of secular rationalism and revolutionary politics; Polemical Objects (2004), a special issue of Res” Anthropology and Aesthetics co-edited with Stephen Melville, which explores the philosophy of medium in Hegel, Heidegger, and others; and Writing on Drawing (2000) for the journal Representations, with essays on the collision of semiotics and mimesis in drawing practices. Her articles, essays, and reviews have appeared in edited volumes as well as journals such as Art Bulletin, Journal of Visual Culture, Perspecta, Representations, Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics, and Yale French Studies. Before joining the GSD faculty, Naginski taught in the History Theory Criticism section of MIT’s architecture department and in the art history department at the University of Michigan. In addition to teaching in the Building Texts Contexts sequence, she offers seminars and lecture courses in architectural history and theory including The Shapes of UtopiaThe Piranesi Effect, Architecture and its Texts (1650-1800), and The Ruin Aesthetic: Episodes in the History of Architectural Idea.

Eve Blau, Adjunct Professor of the History of Urban Form, Graduate School of Design. Blau’s research focuses on modernism, the city, and issues of representation. Her book, Project Zagreb: Transition as Condition, Strategy, Practice (2007) examines transition as condition that creates opportunities for architecture. The Architecture of Red Vienna, 1919–1934 (1999) examines the interrelation of political program, architectural practice, and urban history in large scale urban intervention, and the process by which architecture can become an agent of collective discourse and social change. Two other books,Shaping the Great City: Modern Architecture in Central Europe 1890–1937 (1999), and Urban Form: Städtebau in der postfordistischen Gesellschaft (2003) look at the city and urban architecture in the context of the multinational urban societies of early 20th-century Central Europe and the current post-Fordist economy. Blau’s publications on architecture and modes of representational discourse include Architecture and Cubism (1997), Architecture and Its Image (1898), and Ruskinian Gothic (1982). She edited  Architectural History 1999/2000: A Special Issue of JSAH (1999), and is the author of Architecture or Revolution: Charles Moore and Yale in the late 1960s (2001) as well as numerous articles on 19th and 20th-century architecture, the city, photography, and other issues in architectural representation. Editor of the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians from 1997–2000, Blau was Curator of Exhibitions and Publications at the Canadian Centre for Architecture from 1984–1990, and Adjunct Curator from 1991– 2001. She has received a number of awards for her publications, including the Alice Davis Hitchcock Book Award, the Austrian Cultural Institute Book Prize, the Spiro Kostof Book Award, the Philip Johnson Exhibition Catalogue Award, and the AIA Citation for Excellence in International Architectural Book Publishing. She currently teaches the Pro-seminar in Urban Design; Transparency and Modernity, and in the core history sequence: Buildings Texts, and Contexts. Previous courses include: Scale and Modernity: City, Object, Subject; The Sixties: Architecture in the Time of the Vietnam War, and Modern Architecture and the Big City as Form and Idea in Europe, 1890–1940.

Giuliana Bruno, Professor of Visual and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Bruno explores the intersections of the visual arts, architecture, and the moving image. Her seminal work, Atlas of Emotion: Journeys in Art, Architecture, and Film (2002), won the 2004 Kraszna-Krausz Book Award in Culture and History – a prize awarded to "the world's best book on the moving image" – and has provided new directions for visual studies. Atlas was also honored as Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association, and named a Book of the Year in 2003 by the Guardian. Her forthcoming book, Surface: Matters of Aesthetics, Materiality, and Media, will be published by the University of Chicago Press in 2014. Her recent book, Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts (2007), has been translated in Europe and Asia. Bruno has published four other books: Jane and Louise Wilson: A Free and Anonymous Monument (2004) examines the multi-screen art installation of the Turner Prize nominees; Streetwalking on a Ruined Map (2002), a journey through modernity and cultural memory, won the 1995 Society for Cinema and Media Studies award for best book in film studies; Off Screen was devoted to women and film in Italy (1988); and Immagini allo schermo (1991) was named one of the 50 Best Books of the First 100 Years of Film History. She writes frequently on contemporary art for international publications, including books on Isaac Julien, forthcoming by the Museum of Modern Art, Jesper Just (2012), Chantal Akerman (2012), Automatic Cities: The Architectural Imaginary in Contemporary Art (2009), Space (2010), and exhibition catalogs of the Museo Reina Sofía and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Bruno lectures at universities and museums internationally, including, recently, the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, the Jewish Museum in Berlin, the Dia Center for the Arts in New York, the Tate Modern, and the Louvre Museum. She is featured in Visual Culture Studies: Interviews with Key Thinkers (2008) as one of the most influential intellectuals working today in visual studies.

Svetlana Boym, Curt Hugo Reisinger Professor of Slavic and Comparative Literatures, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Boym’s primary areas of teaching and research are aesthetics and philosophy and literature, art and the urban imaginary. She is concerned with the politics of memory, the off-modern condition, the relationship between estrangement and exile, art in the public sphere, and political and artistic freedom (with special attention to the works of Vladimir Tatlin, Kazimir Malevich, Ilya Kabakov, Victor Shklovsky, Osip Mandelshtam, Marina Tsvetaeva, Joseph Brodsky, Vladimir Nabokov, Danilo Kis, Milan Kundera, Dubravka Ugresic, Andrei Sinyavsky and Varlam Shalamov). She works on Russian, East European, Latin-American, and other forms of eccentric Western culture. Her book Another Freedom: The Alternative History of an Idea (2010) is a cross cultural exploration of the conceptions of public freedom at the intersection of aesthetics and politics. Other publications include: The Future of Nostalgia (2001); Architecture of the Off-Modern (2008); Territories of Terror: Memories and Mythologies of Gulag (2006); Ninochka: A Novel (2003); “Banality of Evil, Mimicry and the Soviet Subject: Varlam Shalamov and Hannah Arendt” (2008); “Conspiracy Theories and Literary Ethics: Umberto Eco, Danilo Kis and the Protocols of Zion” (1999) “Nostalgia and the Off-Modern Condition” (2010); "Scenography of Friendship: Hannah Arendt and Mary McCarthy" (2010). Boym received a Guggenheim Fellowship as well an American Academy in Berlin Fellowship and was Gauss Lecturer in Criticism in Princeton University. For her teaching and advising, she was awarded Everett Mendelsohn Excellence in Mentoring Award in 2009. Boym is also a writer and a practicing artist; her projects of Phantasmagorias, Nostalgic Technologies and Hydrants Immigrants were exhibited in Berlin, Madrid, Ljubljana, Copenhagen, Glasgow, New York, Cambridge, MA and most recently at the Venice Architectural Biennial (2010). Boym studied Hispanic languages and literatures at Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute and at Boston University and received her PhD in Comparative Literature from Harvard University.

Diane E. Davis, Professor of Urbanism and Development, Program on Planning and Design, Graduate School of Design. Davis’s research interests include the politics of urban development policy, socio-spatial practice in conflict cities, the relations between urbanization and national development, and comparative international development. With a special interest in Latin America, she has explored topics ranging from urban violence, historic preservation, urban social movements, and identity politics to urban governance, fragmented sovereignty, and state formation. At present, she is principal investigator of two long-term research initiatives, one focused on the politics of sustainable transportation infrastructure, the other on the role of social housing in urban densification. Before to moving to the Graduate School of Design, Davis served as the head of the International Development Group in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT, where she also was Associate Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning. Prior to that she taught in Sociology & History at the New School for Social Research. Davis is the author of Urban Leviathan: Mexico City in the Twentieth Century (1994; Spanish ed. 1999) and Discipline and Development: Middle Classes and Prosperity in East Asia and Latin America (2004), which was named the 2005 Best Book in Political Sociology by the American Sociological Association. She is co-editor of Irregular Armed Forces and their Role in Politics and State Formation (2003) and Cities and Sovereignty: Identity Conflicts in the Urban Realm (2011). A prior recipient of research fellowships from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Heinz Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Social Science Research Council, the United States Institute for Peace, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Davis now coordinates a large scale project titled Urban Resilience in Conditions of Chronic Violence and funded by USAID. An elected member of the Urban and Regional Development Section (RC21) of the International Sociological Association (ISA) and a member of Panel SH3 (Environment and society: environmental studies, demography, social geography, urban and regional studies) of the European Research Council. She also serves on the Editorial Boards of City and Community, Political Power and Social Theory, and the Journal of Latin American Studies. Davis received her BA in Sociology and Geography from Northwestern University, and her MA and PhD in Sociology from UCLA.

Sonja Dümpelmann Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, Graduate School of Design. Dümpelmann teaches courses in landscape history and theory. Her research and writing focus on nineteenth- and twentieth-century landscape history, and contemporary landscape architecture in the Western world, with a particular emphasis on the urban environment in Europe and the United States. Her work explores the role of politics, technology, and science in landscape design and planning, the historiography of landscape design and related fields, the transatlantic transfer of ideas, and the work of women in landscape architecture. Dümpelmann is the author of Flights of Imagination: Aviation, Landscape, Design(2014), and of a book on the Italian landscape architect Maria Teresa Parpagliolo Shephard (2004). Her edited volumes include the Cultural History of Gardens in the Age of Empire (2013), and the co-edited Greening the City: Urban Landscapes in the Twentieth Century(2011). Her articles, essays, and reviews have appeared in Landscape Journal, Landscape Research, Planning Perspectives, Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed LandscapesJournal of Landscape Architecture, Stadtbauwelt, Stadt und Grün, Die Gartenkunst. She has been a fellow at the German Historical Institute, and at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC. She currently serves as a Senior Fellow on the Dumbarton Oaks Senior Fellows committee and as the President of the Landscape History Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians. Before joining the GSD faculty she taught at Auburn University and the University of Maryland.

Ed Eigen, Associate Professor of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Graduate School of Design. Eigen is an architectural historian and scholar whose work focuses on intersections of the human and natural sciences with architecture in the nineteenth century. He is presently working on a book-length manuscript entitled On Accident, which assembles chapters from his study of the contingent and highly localized conditions for the production of knowledge around science and nature. He has also contributed to a number of journals, such asAssemblage, Harvard Design Magazine, Thresholds, Perspecta, Grey Room, Log, Cabinet, Architecture and Science, Journal of the History of Biology, Landscape and Art,and Landscapes of Memory and Experience. Before joining the GSD faculty, Eigen was Assistant Professor of Architecture at Princeton University, where he was named an Old Dominion Faculty Fellow (2003–2005) and was awarded the 2005 Graduate Mentoring Award by the McGraw Center for Teaching and Learning and the Graduate School of Princeton University. He went on to serve as as Associate Professor of Architecture at the Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture at City College New York. He has a B.A. from the University of Virginia, an M.Arch from the Columbia University, and a Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Susan S. Fainstein joined the faculty of the Graduate School of Design in 2006, where she is Interim Professor of Planning. She teaches courses on planning implementation, redevelopment policy, and planning theory. Her teaching and research have focused on comparative urban public policy, planning theory, urban political economy, public participation, and urban redevelopment. She is currently working on a book to be called Justice, Planning, and the City. Among her published works are The City Builders: Property, Politics, and Planning in London and New York; Restructuring the City; and Urban Political Movements. She has co-edited volumes, inter alia, on urban tourism (The Tourist City and Cities and Visitors), planning theory (Readings in Planning Theory), urban theory (Readings in Urban Theory), and gender (Gender and Planning). She is the recipient of the 2004 Distinguished Educator Award of the Association of American Schools of Planning, which recognizes lifetime career achievement. Fainstein has been Professor of Planning in the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University and in the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers University. She has held the Wibaut Chair for Distinguished International Visitors at the University of Amsterdam and visiting appointments at the University of the Witwatersrand, SA, the University of London, Cleveland State University, and New York University. She led or participated in studies of the Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program, the rebuilding of Ground Zero in Manhattan, and the relationship between competitiveness, cohesion, and governance in cities in the United Kingdom. She was a co-principal investigator in the NSF-sponsored International Development and Globalization Program at Columbia and was a member of the board of the UK Cities Programme. She has served on numerous editorial boards and was an editor of the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. She received her AB from Harvard University in government, her MA from Boston University in African Studies, and her PhD in political science from MIT.

Peter Galison, Mallinckrodt Professor of the History of Science and of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. In 1997, Galison was named a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellow; in 1999, he was a winner of the Max Planck Prize given by the Max Planck Gesellschaft and Humboldt Stiftung. Galison is interested in both the philosophical and historical questions that arise when examining the role of experiments in modern physics: What, at a given time, convinces people that an experiment is correct? More broadly, Galison’s main work explores the complex interaction between the three principal subcultures of 20th-century physics: experimentation, instrumentation, and theory. The volume on experiment (How Experiments End [1987]) and that on instruments (Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics [1997]) are to be followed by the final volume, Theory Machines, which is still under construction. In addition, Galison has launched several projects examining the powerful crosscurrents between physics and other fields, including his co-edited volumes on the relations between science, art, and architecture, The Architecture of Science (1999) and Picturing Science, Producing Art (1998), as well as Big Science (1992), The Disunity of Science (1996), and Atmospheric Flight in the 20th Century (2000). Image and Logic won the Pfizer Award from the History of Science Society in October 1998. Galison’s courses include: History and Philosophy of 20th-Century Physics; History and Philosophy of Experimentation; Fascism, Art, and Science in the Interwar Years; Science and Realism; the Einsteinian Revolution; seminars on Critical History and on the History and Philosophy of Theory in 20th-Century Physics; and Filming Science. Additionally, he leads weekly meetings of Harvard’s Physical Sciences Research Group where students, faculty, and staff have the opportunity to present and discuss relevant topics in the history of science including the history of mathematics and the history of technology.

K. Michael Hays, Associate Dean of Academic Affairs, Eliot Noyes Professor of Architectural Theory, Graduate School of Design. Hays joined the Faculty of Design in 1988 and teaches courses in architectural history and theory, including Buildings, Texts, and Contexts from the Enlightenment through the 20th Century. Hays has played a central role in the development of architectural theory in North America, and his work is internationally known. His research and scholarship have to date focused on the areas of European modernism and critical theory, as well as on theoretical issues in contemporary architectural practice. He has published on the work of modern architects such as Hannes Meyer, Ludwig Hilberseimer, and Mies van der Rohe, as well as of figures such as Peter Eisenman, Bernard Tschumi, and the late John Hejduk. He is currently working on a history of architecture since 1968. Hays was the founder of the scholarly journal Assemblage, which was a leading forum of discussion of architectural theory in North America and Europe. In 2000, he was appointed the first Adjunct Curator of Architecture at the Whitney Museum of American Art. Hays received the Bachelor of Architecture from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1976, the Master of Architecture in Advanced Studies from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979, and a PhD in the History, Theory, and Criticism of Architecture and Art from MIT in 1990.

Sheila Jasanoff, Pforzheimer Professor of Science and Technology Studies, Harvard Kennedy School. A pioneer in her field, she has authored more than 100 articles and chapters and is author or editor of a dozen books, including Controlling Chemicals, The Fifth Branch, Science at the Bar, and Designs on Nature. Her work explores the role of science and technology in the law, politics, and policy of modern democracies, with particular attention to the nature of public reason. She was founding chair of the Science, Technology and Society Department at Cornell University and has held numerous distinguished visiting appointments in the US, Europe, and Japan. Jasanoff served on the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and as President of the Society for Social Studies of Science. Her grants and awards include a 2010 Guggenheim Fellowship and an Ehrenkreuz from the Government of Austria. She holds AB, JD, and PhD degrees from Harvard, and an honorary doctorate from the University of Twente.

Jerold Kayden, Frank Backus Williams Professor of Urban Planning and Design, Graduate School of Design. His research and teaching focus on law and the built environment, and public-private urban development. His courses include: Public and Private Development; Design, Law, Policy; Advanced Topics in Design, Law, Policy; and Planning and Environmental Law. Kayden’s publications include Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience; Landmark Justice: The Influence of William J. Brennan on America’s Communities (co-authored); and Zoning and the American Dream: Promises Still To Keep (co-edited). He has written numerous articles on such topics as property rights and government regulation, smart growth, design codes, and market based regulatory instruments. He is currently completing a book about the “tyranny of context” in design review administrative and judicial decision-making. As both attorney and urban planner, Kayden has acted on behalf of governments, private developers, and not-for-profit groups, in and out of court. He has argued cases and written briefs, including amicus curiae briefs in several significant US Supreme Court land use cases. In 2002, he founded Advocates for Privately Owned Public Space to improve New York City’s 500+ zoning-created plazas, arcades, and indoor spaces in cooperation with the City’s Department of City Planning. For the past 13 years, he has been principal constitutional counsel to the National Trust for Historic Preservation. His international work includes advising for the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, and the United Nations in China, Nepal, Thailand, Armenia, Ukraine, and Russia. From 1992 to 1994, he was Senior Advisor on Land Reform and Privatization to the Government of Ukraine on behalf of USAID/PADCO.  Kayden has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, National Endowment for the Arts fellowships, and the “Teacher of the Year” award at the Harvard Design School. He received his AB degree from Harvard College, his JD degree from Harvard Law School, and his Master of City and Regional Planning degree from the Harvard Design School. He subsequently served as law clerk to Judge James L. Oakes of the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Justice William J. Brennan of the US Supreme Court.

Ali Malkawi, Professor of Architectural Technology, Graduate School of Design, Founding Director of the Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities. Malkawi is an international scholar and expert in building simulation, energy conservation, and sustainability in buildings. He teaches architectural technology and computation and conducts research in the areas of computational simulation, building performance evaluation, and advanced visualization. As Founding Director of the Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities, he leads a multi-disciplinary research institution that seeks to transform the building industry through a commitment to design-centric strategy that directly links research outcomes to the development of new processes, systems, and products. He currently holds the Velux visiting professorship at the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen. Malkawi serves as a consultant on many high profile projects, including airport designs, super towers (LOTTE, Seoul; World Trade Center, NY), industrial factories (Ferrari factory, Italy), cities (King Abdulla Atomic and Renewable City, Riyadh) and commercial and residential showcase projects. He has provided strategic guidance on building energy related topics to senior members of the Obama Administration, including the Vice President of the United States of America. He also innovates and leads efforts in sustainability framework developments and engages with energy policies in several countries, including leading the development of the first performance based sustainability rating system in the Middle East for the State of Qatar. Lead author or co-author of over eighty scientific papers, Malkawi is also the co-editor of two books on the subject of computationally-driven design and simulation: Advanced Building Simulation and Performative Architecture–Beyond Instrumentality. He serves as a board member and scientific reviewer for many leading journals, conferences and research centers, and is the associate editor of Building Simulation–International Journal, distributed by Springer publisher. Malkawi received his BS in Architectural Engineering and Environmental Design from Jordan University of Science and Technology in 1989, his MArch from the University of Colorado in 1990 and his PhD from Georgia Institute of Technology in Architectural Technology/Artificial Intelligence in 1994.

Alina A. Payne, Alexander P. Misheff Professor of History of Art and Architecture, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Payne was trained as an architect (BArch, McGill University) and received MA and PhD degrees in art/architecture history (University of Toronto). She is the author of The Architectural Treatise in the Italian Renaissance (1999; Hitchcock Prize, 2000), Rudolf Wittkower (2011), From Ornament to Object. Genealogies of Architectural Modernism (2012),TheTelescope and the Compass. Teofilo Gallaccini and the Dialogue between Architecture and Science in the Age of Galileo (2012); editor of Displacements. Architecture and the Other Side of the Known (2000), Teofilo Gallaccini. Writings and Library (2012), and Dalmatia and the Mediterranean. Portable Archaeology and the Poetics of Influence (2014), and co-editor of Antiquity and Its Interpreters 2000). She is currently researching her next book on Renaissance architecture and materiality and preparing edited volumes on Vision and Its InstrumentsThe Renaissance in the 19th century (with L. Bolzoni) and Ornament. Between Local and Global (with G. Necipoglu). She has published numerous articles on Renaissance and modern architecture, on historiography and artistic theory. She was awarded the Max Planck and Alexander von Humboldt Prize in the Humanities (2006). Payne teaches courses on Early Modern and Modern European architecture. She has taught at Oberlin College and University of Toronto and she has held visiting appointments at the GSD, Harvard University, Villa I Tatti (Florence), Kunsthistorisches/ Max Planck Institut (Florence), École Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Paris), Hertziana/ Max Planck Institute (Rome), University of Palermo and University of Rome, II. She has served on the Board of Directors of the Society of Architectural Historians and as Book Review Editor of the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians and serves currently on the editorial boards of several international journals (Res. Journal of Aesthetics and Anthropology, I Tatti Studies, Journal of Art Historiography, Lexicon. Storie e architettura in Sicilia e nel Mediterraneo, and Architectural Histories and the series Renovatio Atrium with Harvey Miller/Brepols) and on several international juries.

Antoine Picon, G. Ware Travelstead Professor of the History of Architecture and Technology, Graduate School of Design. Picon teaches courses in the history of architecture and technology. Trained as an engineer, architect, and historian of science and art, Picon is best known for his work in the history of architectural technologies from the 18th century to the present. His French Architects and Engineers in the Age of Enlightenment (1988; English translation, 1992) is a synthetic study of the disciplinary “deep structures” of architecture, garden design, and engineering in the 18th century, and their transformations as new issues of territorial management and infrastructure-systems planning were confronted. In addition to four other books—Claude Perrault (1613-1688) ou la curiosité d’un classique (1988), L’Invention de L’ingénieur moderne, L’Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées 1747-1851 (1992),  La ville territoire des cyborgs (1998), and Les Saint-Simoniens: Raison, Imaginaire, et Utopie (2002)—he has also published numerous articles, mostly dealing with the complementary histories of architecture and technology. He has received several awards in France for his writings, including the Medaille de la Ville de Paris and twice the Prix du Livre d’Architecture de la ville de Briey. Picon received engineering degrees from the École Polytechnique and from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, an architecture degree from the École d’Architecture de Paris-Villemin, and a doctorate in history from the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.

A. Hashim Sarkis, Aga Khan Professor of Landscape Architecture and Urbanism in Muslim Societies, Graduate School of Design. He teaches design studios and courses in the history and theory of architecture, such as Practices in Democracy, Constructing Vision: A History and Theory of Perspective’s Applications in Architecture, Developing Worlds: Planning and Design in the Middle East and Latin America After WWII, and Green Modern: A History of Environmental Consciousness in Architecture from Patrick Geddes to the Present. Sarkis is a practicing architect, working between Cambridge and Lebanon. His projects include a housing complex for the fishermen of Tyre, a park in downtown Beirut, two schools in the North Lebanon region, and several urban and landscape projects. Sarkis was previously a lecturer in MIT’s Department of Architecture and a research associate in MIT’s Department of Urban Studies and Planning. He has taught design studios at the Rhode Island School of Design and Yale University, and has been visiting lecturer at the American University of Beirut and the Metropolis Program in Barcelona. He is author of several books and articles, including Circa 1958: Lebanon in the Pictures and Plans of Constantinos Doxiadis (Beirut: Dar Annahar, 2003), editor of CASE: Le Corbusier’s Venice Hospital (Munich: Prestel, 2001), co-editor with Peter G. Rowe of Projecting Beirut (Munich: Prestel, 1998), and executive editor of the CASE publication series (GSD/Prestel). Sarkis directs the Aga Khan Program of Activities at the GSD associated with the Aga Khan Chair. He received his BArch and BFA from the Rhode Island School of Design, his MArch from the GSD, and his PhD in architecture from Harvard University.

Christine Smith, Robert C. and Marion K. Weinberg Professor of Architectural History, Graduate School of Design. Smith teaches courses in Early Christian, Romanesque, and Italian Renaissance architecture; and she has published on Early Christian, Italian Romanesque, Italian Renaissance, and 20th-century American art and architecture, although most of her publications are in the field of Tuscan Romanesque, or on Leon Battista Alberti and Early Renaissance architectural theory. A book on Giannozzo Manetti’s writings on architecture, Building the Kingdom: Giannozzo Manetti on the Material and the Spiritual Edifice, co-authored with Joseph O’Connor, is in press. This work includes critical editions of, commentaries on, and interpretive essays about his letter written on the occasion of the consecration of Florence Cathedral (1436) and Book 2 of his Life of Nicholas V (1455). A longer project is an anthology of texts c. 300–1520, from the Greek East and Latin West, illuminating such themes as the architect’s knowledge of geometry and mechanics, the participation of the patron in architectural design, the role of architectural ornament (wall revetment and pavements), praise and condemnation of building practice and buildings, the praise of cities, fictive architecture, and the response to ruins.